## Introduction

Fractions are an important part of mathematics, but they can be challenging for many students, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a developmental condition that affects how people communicate and interact with others, as well as how they learn and process information. Some of the common difficulties that students with ASD face in learning fractions are:

- Understanding the concept of fractions as parts of a whole or as ratios
- Comparing and ordering fractions with different denominators
- Performing operations with fractions, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
- Applying fractions to real-world situations and word problems
- Using appropriate strategies and tools to solve fraction problems

To help students with ASD overcome these challenges, researchers have explored different methods of teaching fractions, such as using concrete manipulatives, visual aids, self-monitoring techniques, and video-based instruction. Concrete manipulatives are physical objects that students can use to represent fractions, such as fraction bars, circles, or strips. Visual aids are images or diagrams that show fractions in different ways, such as number lines, pie charts, or area models. Self-monitoring techniques are strategies that students can use to check their own understanding and progress, such as using a checklist, a rubric, or a feedback system. Video-based instruction is a method that uses videos to model and demonstrate how to solve fraction problems, such as using examples, explanations, and steps.

## The Research Study

A recent research study investigated the effects of using video-based instruction in solving fraction computations of students with ASD. The study aimed to answer the following research questions:

- Does video-based instruction, combined with concrete manipulatives, a self-monitoring checklist, and practice for comprehension check, improve the accuracy of fraction problem solving of students with ASD?
- Does video-based instruction, combined with concrete manipulatives, a self-monitoring checklist, and practice for comprehension check, generalize to different types of fraction problems, such as those involving whole proper fractions?
- Does video-based instruction, combined with concrete manipulatives, a self-monitoring checklist, and practice for comprehension check, maintain the accuracy of fraction problem solving of students with ASD over time?

The study used a single-case multiple probe between participants experimental design, which means that the effects of the intervention were measured for each student individually, and the intervention was introduced at different times for each student. The study involved five primary school students with ASD, who were selected based on their diagnosis, their grade level, their prior knowledge of fractions, and their consent to participate. The intervention consisted of four components:

- Video-based instruction: The students watched a series of videos that showed how to solve fraction problems using concrete manipulatives, visual aids, and verbal explanations. The videos were recorded by the researcher, who used a scripted dialogue and a clear voice. The videos were about 3 to 5 minutes long, and they covered different topics, such as identifying fractions, comparing fractions, adding fractions, subtracting fractions, multiplying fractions, and dividing fractions. The videos were shown on a tablet device, and the students could pause, rewind, or replay the videos as needed.
- Concrete manipulatives: The students used fraction bars, which are rectangular pieces of plastic that are divided into equal parts, to represent and manipulate fractions. The fraction bars were color-coded and labeled with the corresponding fraction values. The students used the fraction bars to model the fraction problems shown in the videos, and to check their answers.
- Self-monitoring checklist: The students used a checklist to monitor their own performance and behavior during the intervention. The checklist had four items: (1) I watched the video carefully, (2) I used the fraction bars correctly, (3) I solved the problem correctly, and (4) I checked my answer. The students marked each item with a smiley face or a sad face, depending on whether they met the criterion or not. The checklist helped the students to focus on the task, to self-evaluate their work, and to receive feedback from the researcher.
- Practice for comprehension check: The students practiced solving fraction problems that were similar to those shown in the videos, but with different numbers and contexts. The practice problems were presented on worksheets, and the students had to write their answers and show their work. The practice problems helped the students to apply what they learned from the videos, to reinforce their skills, and to assess their understanding.

The intervention was implemented for 30 minutes per session, three times per week, for six weeks. The students received the intervention individually, in a quiet room with minimal distractions. The researcher provided praise and encouragement to the students throughout the intervention.

## The Results

The results of the study showed that the intervention was effective in improving the accuracy of fraction problem solving of students with ASD. The results were based on three types of data:

- Baseline data: This was the data collected before the intervention, to measure the students’ initial level of performance. The baseline data showed that the students had low accuracy in solving fraction problems, ranging from 0% to 40%.
- Intervention data: This was the data collected during the intervention, to measure the students’ progress and improvement. The intervention data showed that the students had high accuracy in solving fraction problems, ranging from 80% to 100%.
- Maintenance data: This was the data collected after the intervention, to measure the students’ retention and generalization. The maintenance data showed that the students maintained high accuracy in solving fraction problems, ranging from 80% to 100%, and that they generalized their skills to different types of fraction problems, such as those involving whole proper fractions.

The results also showed that the students had positive attitudes and behaviors during the intervention. The students expressed interest and enjoyment in watching the videos and using the fraction bars. The students also showed increased attention, engagement, and confidence in solving fraction problems. The students reported that the intervention helped them to learn fractions better, and that they liked the intervention.

## The Implications

The study has several implications for teachers, researchers, and students with ASD. The study suggests that video-based instruction, combined with concrete manipulatives, a self-monitoring checklist, and practice for comprehension check, is an effective and feasible method of teaching fractions to students with ASD. The study also provides evidence for the benefits of using multiple components to support the learning of students with ASD, such as visual, auditory, tactile, and behavioral supports. The study also demonstrates the potential of using technology, such as tablet devices and videos, to enhance the instruction and motivation of students with ASD. The study also highlights the importance of individualizing the instruction and assessment of students with ASD, based on their needs, preferences, and abilities.

The study is a valuable contribution to the field of mathematics education for students with ASD. The study adds to the existing literature on the use of video-based instruction and concrete manipulatives in teaching fractions, and extends the research to a new population and setting. The study also provides practical suggestions and recommendations for implementing the intervention in different contexts and situations. The study also identifies some limitations and challenges of the intervention, such as the need for more training and supervision, the need for more resources and equipment, and the need for more research and evaluation. The study also proposes some directions for future research, such as exploring the effects of the intervention on other mathematical topics, other academic subjects, and other skills and outcomes.

The study is a useful and informative resource for anyone who is interested in or involved in teaching fractions to students with ASD. The study shows that video-based instruction, combined with concrete manipulatives, a self-monitoring checklist, and practice for comprehension check, can help students with ASD to learn fractions better, and to enjoy fractions more. The study also shows that students with ASD can achieve success and satisfaction in mathematics, if they are given the appropriate support and guidance. The study also shows that mathematics can be fun and meaningful for students with ASD, if they are given the opportunity and encouragement.

## Faq

### How does video-based instruction help students with ASD learn fractions better?

Video-based instruction helps students with ASD learn fractions better by providing them with visual, auditory, and verbal cues and explanations, which can enhance their attention, memory, and comprehension. Video-based instruction also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by modeling and demonstrating how to solve fraction problems, using examples, steps, and strategies, which can improve their problem-solving and reasoning skills. Video-based instruction also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by allowing them to control the pace and repetition of the instruction, which can increase their motivation and engagement.

### How do concrete manipulatives help students with ASD learn fractions better?

Concrete manipulatives help students with ASD learn fractions better by providing them with tactile and kinesthetic feedback, which can stimulate their sensory and motor skills. Concrete manipulatives also help students with ASD learn fractions better by representing and manipulating fractions in a concrete and tangible way, which can facilitate their conceptual and procedural understanding. Concrete manipulatives also help students with ASD learn fractions better by enabling them to check and verify their answers, which can boost their confidence and accuracy.

### How does a self-monitoring checklist help students with ASD learn fractions better?

A self-monitoring checklist helps students with ASD learn fractions better by providing them with a clear and simple guide to follow and complete during the intervention, which can improve their organization and focus. A self-monitoring checklist also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by enabling them to evaluate and monitor their own performance and behavior, which can enhance their metacognition and self-regulation. A self-monitoring checklist also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by giving them feedback and reinforcement, which can foster their self-esteem and satisfaction.

### How does practice for comprehension check help students with ASD learn fractions better?

Practice for comprehension check helps students with ASD learn fractions better by providing them with opportunities to apply and practice what they learned from the videos, which can reinforce their skills and knowledge. Practice for comprehension check also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by exposing them to different types of fraction problems, which can expand their scope and variety. Practice for comprehension check also helps students with ASD learn fractions better by assessing their understanding and mastery of the topic, which can identify their strengths and weaknesses.

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